Monday, September 27, 2010

Matter, Physical and Chemical Change (Isabelle)

Isabelle Cheng
September 27, 2010
Block 2-2 Chemistry 11 
Ms.Chen
Matter
  • anything that has mass, volume, and takes up space
  • has length, width, and height
  • can change from one state to another
  • is conserved
  • includes atoms and other particles
  • includes physical and chemical change
  • example: everything around you

Matter
(Lines are for separation of categories)
                           
ELEMENTS:
  • can move from one phase to another
  • pure substance that can’t be broken down into 
  • smaller substances 
  • simplest kind of matter
  • also called chemical element
  • building blocks of matter
  • example: elements on the periodic table

COMPOUNDS:
  • combination of two or more elements joined together
  • made up of two or more types of elements
  • can’t be broken down into two or more simpler substances 
  • elements form compound to make it stable
  • pure substances
  • example: water, carbon dioxide
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MIXTURES:
  • substance created by combining two or more different materials
  • combining two or more different substances so there is no chemical reaction 
  • can be separated and go back to original forms
  • mostly natural substances
  • can be separated into pure compounds or elements
  • example: salad, salt water


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HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES:
  • same uniform appearance and composition
  • referred to solutions
  • only composed of one phase 
  • is not very visible
  • example: salt water, soapy water

HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES:
  • mixture of two or more different substances in form of solution
  • composed of mixed phases
  • consists of visible different substances or phases
  • no definite composition
  • inconsistent
  • can be seen by just looking at it
  • can be seperated
  • three phases are solid, liquid, and gas
  • example: sandy water, sugar and salt mixed in a bowl

States of Matter

  • SOLID: - rigid
  • particles are touching with very little space between them
  • has definite volume and shape
  • mostly hard material because particles and closely packed together
  • can hold their shape
  • Can be made of many different materials
  • Example: Rocks, crystals






  • LIQUID: - partially rigid
  • - particles are touching slightly with space between them
  • hard to compress
  • has definite volume
  • particles are able to move around
  • Example: Water, blood




  • GAS: - not rigid
  • major spaces between particles 
  • not compacted 
  • no definite volume or shape
  • really spread apart and bounce around constantly
  • can fill an entire container not depending on size or shape
  • can hold huge amounts of energy and particles

Physical and Chemical Change
PHYSICAL CHANGE:
  • Uniform
  • Change that affects size, shape, odor, volume, mass, weight, or color of a substance
  • Change the state of matter
  • Can happen by increasing or decreasing of temperature
  • No new substance is formed 
  • Matter changing in appearance without forming new substances
  • Reversible
  • Easily reversed to get original material back 
  • Example: Melting ice can freeze back into ice again

CHEMICAL CHANGE:
  • Not uniform
  • New substances are formed
  • Changes - color, odor, solubility, phase
  • One or more new substances are made/created
  • New substance/material is different from the original
  • Change that makes a new kind of matter with different properties
  • Not reversible
  • Example: Burned wood can not return back to the original piece of wood, raw eggs that became cooked can not be uncooked

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